The cells of Borrelia are 0.2-0.5x3-20 microns in size and are helical with 3-10 rough, uneven, irregular spirals, some of which can form obtuse angles. Occasionally, cells up to 1μm wide and 25μm long can be present. The size of the measurement varies depending on the strain and the staining method used.
Electron microscopy showed a foamy elastic coating and cytoplasmic membrane with 15-20 parallel filaments wound around the cell body between them. There is an elongated fibrous material in the center of the cell, no mitochondria, and no corrugated membrane. The filaments of bacteria make up the organ of motion, and the coiled filaments usually spin in one direction, while the cell itself spins at the same rate in the opposite direction. Do wave motions forward and backward, while it bends and turns over to make a near-spiral lateral movement.
Figure 1. A scanning electron micrograph of a cluster Borrelia. (From microbewiki)
Borrelia is Gram-negative and stains well with aniline dyes. The nutritional characteristics of most species are unknown. Those species that have been studied are fermentative metabolism. Several species have been reported to grow in complex media containing natural animal proteins or in developing chicken embryos. Its minimum nutritional requirements are not known.
Borrelia are strictly anaerobic bacteria. See growth at 20-37°C, optimum temperature 28°-30°C. Store at -76°C. The structure of the antigen is generally unstable and there is considerable variation, especially in the pathogenic strains in the relapsed period of the old disease.
Creative Biogene offers customizable Borrelia strain culture services. This service can help you obtain Borrelia cultures for subsequent scientific research. This service allows you to skip the complicated and tedious groping of culture conditions, which helps to speed up research on this strain.
The cells of Borrelia anserine are 0.2-0.3x6-30μm in size, usually 8-20μm long, with a circular cross-section; the helix has 5-8 turns, and the pitch is usually 1.2-1.8μm. The bacterium can move by shake violently.
The bacteria grow in medium containing native protein and tissue fragments. Some strains grow well in developing chick embryos.
Pathogenic to geese, ducks, turkeys, pheasants, canaries, chicks, and grouse; most strains are also pathogenic to guinea fowl and pigeons. It does not infect mice, rabbits, dogs, sheep, and lizards. Causes borreliosis in birds, also known as borough paralysis. Transmission is caused by the bite of some ticks and possibly other blood-sucking insects. Transmission can occur between birds through feces and cannibalism. Borrelia anserine is found in infected birds and vector ticks in Africa, India, the Middle East, Europe, Australia, South America and the western United States.
Borrelia recurrentis cells are cylindrical, sometimes flattened, 0.3-0.6X8-18μm in size, and tapered at one or both ends. The helix has 3-8 turns and is often not constant; the pitch of the helix is 1.2-1.7 microns. The bacterium can move by shake violently.
Borrelia recurrentis are grown in media with ascites fluid or serum, or on renal fragments or coagulated proteins at pH 7.2-7.4. In addition, the bacteria can also propagate in developing chick embryos.
The bacteria can cause disease in humans and monkeys. Symptoms vary depending on the Borrelia strain and monkey species. Usually infecting mice is short-lived and mild. But strains from Kenya often cause severe disease. Young mice are susceptible to infection, but have been reported to be resistant to certain North African strains. Guinea pigs are not susceptible to disease. The vector arthropods are body lice. After sucking infected blood, Borrelia penetrates body fluids that do not communicate with the internal organs. It is transmitted by infestation with bodily fluids, rather than arthropod bites, which are only released when the lice crush or amputated. When scratching after a bite, the arthropod can be injured and Borrelia rubbed into the skin. The spiral motion of the organism helps it penetrate the abraded skin or mucous membranes. Borrelia cannot be transmitted to the offspring of lice through the egg route, while most ticks are transmitted through eggs. The bacteria are found in infected lice and people.
Borrelia hispanica is morphologically similar to Borrelia regress. The bacteria can make people sick. Monkeys usually have two or three recurrences. Causes short-term and mild infection in mice. Instillation into the eyes of rabbits caused keratitis similar to syphilis, mildly ill in Erinaceuseuropaeus. Infections in dogs, porcupines and bats can also be caused in the laboratory.
Borrelia hispanica can cause endemic human relapsing epidemics in North Africa and countries close to the Mediterranean region. The vector arthropod is the Ornithorodoros erralicus erraiticus, found in endemic cases of relapsing fever in North Africa and countries close to the Mediterranean region. It also seen in domestic and near-domestic rodents, dogs, jackals, foxes, and porcupines.
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Creative Biogene builds a world-class microbial fermentation technology platform, providing a variety of services from strain screening and optimization to fermentation production and product purification. We have many years of rich experience and provide good technical support for microbial GMP production.
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The culture of Borrelia requires specific formulations of growth media for use in cloning, plasmid DNA preparation, and protein expression. Creative Biogene offers a selection of bacterial growth media and custom services for your specific application. If you are interested in our microbial anaerobic and aerobic culture platform, please contact us for more details.