Spirochaeta cells are helical and 0.20-0.75x5-500 microns in size. Cells have axons, and the axons are wrapped around the protoplast, or around the protoplast cylinder. Cells lack terminal hooks and transverse stripes, and may swim with the aid of axonemes.
Figure1. Spirochaeta. (Helena Yu Aksenova, et al.;1992)
Spirochaeta lives in mud and sewage containing H2S.
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The cells of Spirochaeta plicatilis are helical, 0.5-0.75 X100-200 μm in size, and rarely 500μm long. Cells are regular primary spirals that exist stably both in motion and without motion. Cells in motion can display broad secondary helices and waves to which smaller primary helices are attached. Metachromatic granules are present in the cells. Because it exists under anaerobic conditions, it is speculated that it is an obligate or facultative anaerobe.
Spirochaeta plicatilis was first seen in "wintering" water. Furthermore, it was observed in fresh water and sea cement slurries containing H2S.
The cells of Spirochaeta stenostrepta are helical and 0.2-0.3x15-45μm in size. A small number of cells were shorter than 15 microns in culture, after which the cell length increased (up to 300 microns) in log phase and stationary phase. Long thalli are occasionally paired and coiled, or a single thallus partially coils itself. The cells of this bacteria are regular, stable primary helices. Cells in motion may display wider secondary helices or waves to which smaller primary helices are attached. Spheroids, typically 1-3 microns in diameter, were occasionally observed in culture. Spheroids appear alone or in association with helical cells. The axons inserted into the two secondary ends are arranged symmetrically. Colonies under the surface of glucose-yeast extract-peptone-thioglycolate agarose were white, spherical and fluffy.
Spirochaeta stenostrepta is an obligate anaerobe and metabolizes by fermentation. The bacteria were negative for Gram stain and negative for contact enzymes. The bacteria can utilize L-arabinose, D-ribose, D-xylose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-mannose, cellobiose, lactose, maltose and sucrose for fermentation. Among them, the products of glucose fermentation are ethanol, acetic acid, lactic acid, CO2, and H2.
Spirochaeta stenostrepta has only been reported to grow on complex media. Grow between 15-40°C; optimum temperature range is 35-37°C. The initial pH of the medium is 7.0-7.5 for optimal growth. Initially isolated from slurries containing H2S in freshwater ponds.
The cells of Spirochaeta zuelzerae are helical and 0.20-0.35x8-16μm in size. Short cells (as short as 2-3 microns) were occasionally seen in culture. In old cultures there were cells up to 80 microns long. Cells grown in log phase have fairly regular, stable primary helices with occasional secondary helices or waves. Spheroids, generally no more than 3-4μm in diameter, are usually formed at the ends of cells during stationary phase of growth. The two axis wires inserted into the secondary end are arranged symmetrically on the left and right. The colonies under the surface of the agar culture medium were white, fluffy, spherical, and tended to spread into the agar culture medium. In additons to, Spirochaeta zuelzerae occasionally appear disk-shaped colonies.
Spirochaeta zuelzerae is an obligate anaerobe. The bacteria metabolize by fermentation. The bacteria are Gram-negative and contactase negative. Spirochaeta zuelzerae can ferment L-arabinose, D-xylose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-mannose, cellobiose, maltose, trehalose and starch. The optimum temperature range for this bacterium is 37-40°C. An initial pH of the medium between 7 and 8 is optimal for growth. During cultivation, the addition of CO2 is absolutely required for growth.
The cells of Spirochaeta litoralis are helical, 0.4-0.5X5.5-7μm. Cells in logarithmic growth phase are regular and tightly coiled. Spheroids (2-3.5 microns in diameter) appear during stationary growth and under unfavorable growth conditions (ie in the presence of O2). The axons inserted into the two secondary ends are arranged symmetrically. Colonies below the surface of the agar media were spherical, fluffy, cream-colored and 1-5 mm in diameter. While the surface colonies were round, a part of the colonies grew in the agar medium, were cream-colored, and were 2-5 mm in diameter.
Spirochaeta litoralis is an obligate anaerobe. It is metabolized by fermentation. The bacteria are Gram-negative and contactase-negative. It can ferment D-arabinose, L-arabinose, L-fucose, L-rhamnose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-mannose, cellobiose, lactose, maltose, Sucrose, trehalose, inulin, raffinose. Unfermented D-lyxose, L-lyxose, D-ribose, L-xylose, methanol, ethanol, pectin, alpha-oxoglutarate citrate fumarate, malate, grass Acetate, succinate, gluconate, tartrate, allantoin, uric acid, orotic acid, glucosamine, amino acids and sugar alcohols. Can grow in chemically defined media containing glucose, NH4Cl or amino acids, sulfides, NaCl, vitamins, coenzyme A and inorganic salts. Its optimum temperature is close to 30°C. Optimum growth is obtained when the initial pH of the medium is between 7-7.5.
The cells of Spirochaeta aurantia are helical and 0.3X5-35μm in size. Most cells are 10-20 microns long in log phase of growth. Cells are generally loosely and irregularly coiled. Regularly convoluted cells appear in young cultures. Spheroids with a diameter of 0.5-2 μm may appear, especially in the stationary phase of growth. Spheroids are either associated with cells or live independently. The two axis wires inserted into the secondary end are arranged symmetrically on the left and right. When exposed to maltose-peptone-yeast extract medium containing 1% g agar, colonies 2-4 mm in diameter, yellow-orange, round, with slightly irregular edges, growing partially subsurface, the central part is raised. The colonies were larger in the low-carbohydrate medium and spread in a near-complete circle in the agar-agar medium, and their pigments were less likely to appear. Among them, the anaerobic colonies under the surface were white, fluffy spherical, and nearly 1 mm in diameter.
Spirochaeta aurantia is a facultative anaerobe. Bacteria can metabolize by fermentation and may have respiratory metabolism. The bacteria are Gram-negative and contactase-positive. The bacterial growth utilizes L-arabinose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-mannose, cellobiose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, trehalose, Dextrin, Inulin, Glycerin and Mannitol. Slow growth at 15°C and thin or no growth at 37°C. The optimum growth temperature is 30°C. Optimum growth was obtained when the initial pH of the medium was 7.0-7.3. The bacteria produce yellow-orange carotenoids under aerobic conditions.
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The culture of Spirochaeta requires specific formulations of growth media for use in cloning, plasmid DNA preparation, and protein expression. Creative Biogene offers a selection of bacterial growth media and custom services for your specific application. If you are interested in our microbial anaerobic and aerobic culture platform, please contact us for more details.