Gallionella Cultivation

Gallionella cells are kidney-shaped or spherical and located at the end of a long "stalk". Among them, the long axis of the cell is perpendicular to the axis of the stalk. A stalk is a bundle of fibers intertwined with each other, and the filaments can branch. They can be covered with ferric hydroxide without precipitating manganese compounds. Gallionella reproduces by cell division, initially with daughter cells still at the end of the stalk, and later they can be released as motile cells. Motile cells move with 1 to 2 polar or subpolar flagella.

Figure 1. Gallionella. (From 1. Gallionella. (From

Gram staining of Gallionella was negative. Since they assimilate considerable amounts of C14O2 while oxidizing ferrous iron to high iron, Gram staining of Gallionella was negative. Since they assimilate considerable amounts of C14O2 while oxidizing ferrous iron to high iron, they may be mineralized energy nutrients. Gallionella grow in inorganic synthetic medium and natural low-nutrient water. Ferric hydroxide can make up 90% of the dry weight of the cell population. Gallionella is a microaerophilic bacterium that develops at an oxygen concentration of approximately 1 mg/L. Its optimum growth pH is 6-7. Gallionella is found in water and soil that are low in iron. It is often associated with Leptothrix ochracea and is associated with the precipitation of large amounts of iron oxide. The growth of these bacteria can cause water quality problems.

Gallionella Culture Service

Creative Biogene offers customizable Gallionella strain culture services. This service can help you obtain Gallionella cultures for subsequent scientific research. This service allows you to skip the complicated and tedious groping of culture conditions, which helps to speed up research on this strain.

Gallionella ferruginea

Gallionella ferruginea has the same morphology as its genus. The shank is a bifurcated, flat wound band, 0.4-1.0 microns wide, formed from a large number (up to 90) of filaments. Under suboptimal conditions there were more bifurcations and apparently less entanglement.

Gallionella filament

Gallionella filament has the same morphology as its genus. The shank is usually composed of less than 12 filaments with helically wound hairpins. It was originally isolated from the drainage water of the Jachroma swamp near Moscow, Soviet Union. Less common in iron-containing water.

Microbial GMP Production

Creative Biogene's fermentation platform has Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and can provide customers with a wide range of high-quality microbial fermentation products such as active pharmaceutical ingredients, enzymes and various fine chemicals. In addition, our microbiology experts have completed the transformation and innovation of traditional processes through continuous breakthroughs in key technologies of microbial fermentation processes, and fully contributed to the smooth delivery of the project.

Production Capacity

Creative Biogene builds a world-class microbial fermentation technology platform, providing a variety of services from strain screening and optimization to fermentation production and product purification. We have many years of rich experience and provide good technical support for microbial GMP production.

Facility Display

As a leader in microbial production, Creative Biogene has comprehensive production process technology and high-volume manufacturing capabilities. Our goal is to help our customers develop streamlined and controlled manufacturing processes and to support customers throughout the entire product development process, from the R&D stage to market launch.

Device Example:

  • Fermentation, centrifugation and filtration upstream process equipment;
  • Fully automatic fermenters ranging in volume from 4,000L to 12,000L with a total capacity of over 100,000 liters;
  • From industrial-scale chromatography systems, membrane systems to larger-scale continuous centrifuges;
  • Recycling and Downstream Equipment;
  • Waste treatment equipment.

Why Choose Us?

The culture of Gallionella requires specific formulations of growth media for use in cloning, plasmid DNA preparation, and protein expression. Creative Biogene offers a selection of bacterial growth media and custom services for your specific application. If you are interested in our microbial anaerobic and aerobic culture platform, please contact us for more details.


  1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Book Review Int. J. of Syst. Bact. 1985, p. 197.
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