The cells of Mycoplasma are highly polymorphic. In the early logarithmic phase, its shape changes from spherical or slightly oval to elongated branched filaments of uniform diameter, ranging from a few to 150 μm in length. It develops into chains of spheroids later in growth. The bacteria may reproduce in different ways: spherical and filamentous cells can undergo transverse binary division and then proliferate by releasing the matrix formed in the filamentous body and by budding. Its filaments also branch, forming a pseudomycelial structure, after which dense corpuscles appear within the filaments, and then the filaments transform into chains of spheres, as a result of constriction between spheres without forming septa; later, the chain breaks and the free organism is released. Mycoplasma cells lack a true cell wall and are surrounded by a single three-layered membrane. It is generally inactive, but gliding movements have been observed in some species. The bacteria are Gram-negative. Colonies on solid media are hemispherical, slightly flat, and very small, usually ranging from 10-600 microns, although the diameter of colonies occasionally reaches 4 mm. Typically colonies are biphasic, with the "fried egg" appearance consists of an opaque, granular, central zone that grows down into the medium and a flat, translucent ring. Under suitable experimental conditions, colonies of most species produced α, a' or β hemolytic zones on blood agar. In most species, peroxides are the major hemolysins. Colonies of some species can adsorb erythrocytes and/or other animal cells in suspension on their surfaces. Growths in liquid media are usually barely visible turbidity. Mycoplasma is an organic chemotrophic bacteria. Although a few species have oxidative metabolism, the metabolism is mainly fermentative. Most species can use either glucose or arginine as their primary energy source, but rarely use both, and sometimes neither. Some strains that ferment glucose can ferment mannose, others can't. They also typically ferment fructose, galactose, maltose, hepatose, dextrin and starch. A few species of this genus can liquefy gelatin, coagulate serum or casein. Does not hydrolyze urea. Phosphatase activity is a remarkable property of some species. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, methylene blue and potassium magnetite are often reduced under anaerobic conditions; less reduced under aerobic conditions. All species require cholesterol or some other sterol for growth. All species tested to date also require long-chain fatty acids for their growth and morphological and osmotic stability. Although some species require yeast extract or yeast extract dialysate, nutritional requirements are usually met by complex media containing serum or 1-2% PPLO serum components. Most species are facultatively anaerobic, although they grow well under anaerobic conditions. One or both species are aerobic, and several species of primate origin prefer anaerobic conditions, especially in the initial isolates. Its temperature range is 22°-41°C, and the optimum temperature is about 36°-37°C. It grows well at around pH 7.
Creative Biogene offers customizable Mycoplasma strain culture services. This service can help you obtain Mycoplasma cultures for subsequent scientific research. This service allows you to skip the complicated and tedious groping of culture conditions, which helps to speed up research on this strain.
Figure 1. Mycoplasma. (From en.wikipedia.org)
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The culture of Mycoplasma requires specific formulations of growth media for use in cloning, plasmid DNA preparation, and protein expression. Creative Biogene offers a selection of bacterial growth media and custom services for your specific application. If you are interested in our microbial anaerobic and aerobic culture platform, please contact us for more details.