The cells of Caulobacter are rod-shaped, spindle-shaped or arc-like, and the size is 0.4-0.5x1-2 microns. Typically has a stalk about 0.15 microns in diameter, the length of which varies depending on the isolate and environmental conditions, the stalk is an extension from one pole that continues as the long axis of the cell. The stalk consists of a cell wall layer, a cell membrane, and a twisted core of the cell membrane. There is a small amount at the end of the handle sticky substance. The bacterium is solitary; in dense colonies, cells can attach to each other in rosettes, with the ends of their stalks embedded in a common mass of attachments.
Cell division is an asymmetric lateral binary division of stalk cells. During division, one of the cells has a stalk and the other has a monopolar hair. Each appendage appears on the opposite end of the split end. Flagellated cells secrete attachments at the base of the flagellum, where they develop into a stalk and enter an immotile vegetative phase. Caulobacter is Gram-negative. The cell wall consists of an outer component that resembles a cell membrane in thickness and organization and an inner component whose thickness varies with the isolate; the inner component is soluble in lysozyme-EDTA. The colonies are round or raised and shiny; the color can be colorless, pink, red, orange or yellow.
Caulobacter is an organic chemotrophic bacteria and undergoes strict respiratory metabolism. The main pathway of carbon intermediate metabolism is the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Most strains can store carbon in the form of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid, and a few strains also store carbon in the form of polysaccharides. Pigments in this bacterium are common. Pigmented isolates of the bacteria contain carotenoids. A few isolates produced both non-diffusive red or orange pigments and diffuse brown or reddish pigments.
The requirements for organic growth factors vary among species. All strains were able to grow on peptone yeast extract medium.
Caulobacter is a strictly aerobic bacteria. The growth temperature range for most isolates of this bacterium is 15-35°C; optimum is 20--25°C. A few isolates grow at 5-25°C; the optimum temperature for these bacteria is 15-20°C. The optimum pH for growth was approximately neutral and the pH range for all isolates was 6.0-9.0.
Figure 1. Caulobacter crescentus. (From wikipedia.org)
Freshwater and soil isolates grow apparently well at low osmotic pressure and can reproduce in distilled water. Growth is inhibited or cells become swollen and tend to lyse in media containing 1% (w/v) or more of organic matter. Isolates from seawater require 0.5-1% (W/V) NaCl for growth in organic media. Growth of most isolates was inhibited by streptomycin (0.1 mg/ml), penicillin G (1000 units/ml) and cycloserine (0.1 mg/ml).
Most species can be isolated from fresh water containing low concentrations of organic matter and from soil. Isolates requiring NaCl were obtained only from seawater.
Creative Biogene offers customizable Caulobacter strain culture services. This service can help you obtain Caulobacter cultures for subsequent scientific research. This service allows you to skip the complicated and tedious groping of culture conditions, which helps to speed up research on this strain.
|Caulobacter||Cell shape and Colony color||Bacterial Culture Condition|
|Caulobacter vibrioides||Cells arc-shaped, slender or nearly ovate. Colonies are colorless or pale yellow.||Vitamin B2 is necessary for growth, but most strains also require supplementation of available unidentified growth factors in the peptone and yeast extract.|
|Caulobacter henricii||The cells are arc-shaped. Colonies of most strains are bright yellow; others are pale yellow or golden red.||Vitamin B12 is the only organic growth factor required.|
|Caulobacter intermedius||The cells are short arc-shaped. Colonies are colorless.||Biotin promotes growth, but also requires the addition of unidentified growth factors that are available in peptone yeast extract.|
|Caulobacter subvibrioides||Cells are tapered; within a clone, some cells have a curved long axis and others have a straight long axis. Colonies are orange or colorless.||The organic growth factor requirement cannot be met with a mixture containing B vitamins, amino acids and purine and pyrimidine groups.|
|Caulobacter crescentus||The cells are elongated arc-shaped. Colonies are colorless.||Organic growth factors are not required. Penicillin G (1000 units/ml) did not inhibit its growth.|
|Caulobacter fusiformis||The cells are slender and conical, and the long axis is not curved. The colonies are bright yellow.||None of the known isolates utilize sugar as a carbon source. The requirements of organic growth factors cannot be met by the mixture containing B vitamins, amino acids and purine and pyrimidine groups.|
|Caulobacter leidyi||The cells are short cone-shaped, and the long axis is not curved. The stalk is very short (less than half the length of the cell) in most environments. Colonies are colorless.||Organic growth factors are not required. Growth was not inhibited by streptomycin (0.1 mg/ml) or penicillin G (1000 units/ml).|
|Caulobacter bacteroides||The cells are elongated rod-shaped. Colonies are colorless, yellow or orange.||The requirements of organic growth factors cannot be met by the mixture containing B vitamins, amino acids and purine and pyrimidine groups.|
|Caulobacter halobacteroides||The cells are elongated rod-shaped. Colonies are colorless.||Its organic growth factor requirements cannot be met with a mixture containing B vitamins and amino acids. Growth in organic medium requires NaCl (0.5-3%, w/v).|
|Caulobacter maris||The cells are elongated rod-shaped. Colonies are colorless.||None of the known isolates utilize amino acids as carbon sources. The organic growth factor requirement cannot be met with a mixture containing B vitamins and amino acids. Growth in organic medium requires NaCl (1-4% w/v).|
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