The cells of Achroonema have thin, smooth, and sometimes markedly porous cell walls. Its protoplasm is uniform, or granular, with few ghosts. Achroonema has multicellular, colorless and unbranched filaments that are often constricted at the septum. The shape of the filaments is straight or relatively straight or very loosely spiral. The bacteria reproduce by breaking filaments and rarely by dormant arthrospore-like cells. Achroonema is an aquatic bacteria.
Figure 1. Achroonema be observed on agar-coated slides under phase-contrast illumination. (Mirna J L G O, et al.; 1981)
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The cells of Achroonema spiroideum are 0.3-0.5X3-15μm in size with homogeneous or finely granular protoplasm. Its cellular composition is filaments up to 250μm long without constriction at the indistinct septum. The filaments are loosely coiled and meandering, and have strong mobility. Under natural conditions, it is common in fresh water, especially in the stagnation layer of lakes, and occasionally in the mucus of plankton.
The cells of Achroonema angustum are 0.7-1.2x2.5-8μm in size with uniform protoplasm. The bacteria have uniform, long, straight filaments. There was no apparent constriction at the indiscernible septum of filaments. The filaments of the bacteria can move. Achroonema angustum is commonly found in freshwater, especially in the stagnant layer of lakes, and sometimes in the sludge layer.
The cells of Achroonema proteiforme are 1.3-1.6x3-13μm in size, the protoplasm is colorless, and contains large granules. Some cells are arranged in single lines in uniform filaments, not constricted at the indistinct septum. The filaments are usually 200-300μm long, rarely as long as 600μm, and are irregular coils in shape. Filaments can move. Under natural conditions, it is found on the sludge bottom of lakes and occasionally in the flowing layer.
The cells of Achroonema profundum are approximately 2 x 2-6μm, with varying degrees of homogeneity of the protoplasm. It is not constricted at indistinct septa in homogeneous filaments. The bacteria have nearly straight or slightly spiral filaments, which can move. Found in the stagnation layer of lakes.
The cells of Achroonema splendens are 3.4X4-10μm, with fine and occasionally coarse granular protoplasm. In filaments, there is no constriction at the clear septum. Filaments are straight or slightly coiled, up to 1μm or longer. Filaments can move. The bacterium is found in ponds containing hydrogen sulfide, on sludge bottoms and in swamp plankton; it is approximately a sulfur-loving organism.
The cells of Achroonema sporogenum are about 2.5x2.5-4μm, and the protoplasm is usually divided into the ectoplasm and a thicker, brighter centroplasm. In straight and substraight filaments, constriction was evident at the diaphragm, so that the cells were almost separated. Its filaments can move. The bacteria can form dormant cells (conidia or spores). The spores are short cylindrical, or barrel-shaped, with flattened ends, or occasionally rounded, 2.5-2.8x2.7-5μm in size. Spores have fairly thick brown cell walls; spores usually appear singly, or 2 to 3 in a row. Originally seen on the leaves of rotting grass in a creek near Riga, Latvia; presumably a heterotrophic organism.
The cells of Achroonema Ientum are 1.4-2 x 3-12μm in size, slightly constricted at the diaphragm of the filaments, all straight or slightly flexed. Its filaments move slowly. Spores are 2-2.5x5-10μm in size, cylindrical, with rounded ends and with thin, colorless walls, usually appearing singly. Found in the sludge bottom or constant stagnation layer of lakes and deep ponds.
The cells of Achroonema inaequale are 2-2.7x1.5-3μm in size with fine and dense granular protoplasm. There are varying degrees of constriction at distinct septum in uniform filaments. Filaments are nearly straight or slightly curved and irregularly curved. Filaments can move. The spores are short, barrel-shaped or disc-shaped, 3.5-4μm wide and 2.5-4.5μm long, with rather thin colorless and smooth walls. Found in the stagnation layer in nutrient-normal lakes.
The cells of Achroonema simplex are short, barrel-shaped, 1.8-2x1.5-3μm in size. The filaments are uniform, long, straight or slightly curved. There is a clear constriction at the obvious diaphragm. Filaments do not move or move slightly. Found in the stagnant layer of lakes, especially below the sludge layer.
The cells of Achroonema articulatum are cylindrical with slightly rounded ends, and are 2-3.5x2.8-13μm in size. The bacterium has a fine granular protoplasm and is distinguished into a brighter ectoplasm and a darker axonal part of the centroplasm. The filaments of Achroonema articulatum are uniform in shape, straight or nearly straight, usually 100-350μm long, with marked constriction at the thick and transparent septum. The filaments of the bacteria can move. Found in deep water, generally in the stagnant layer of lakes.
The cells of Achroonema gotlandicum are cylindrical, with a size of 2.5-3x9-12μm. The bacterium has a uniform fine-grained protoplasm, sometimes with a thin, brighter peripheral zone. In the homogeneous filaments, there is an expanded, unbreakable, different degrees constricted area at the obvious transverse septum. Filaments are straight, or slightly curved, and can move. Originally found in the lower waters of Lake Sigwaldetrask in Gotland.
The cells of Achroonema macromeres are cylindrical or slightly barrel-shaped, 5-6.8X4-19μm in size. Its cell wall has obvious pores, and the protoplasm is divided into a brighter ectoplasm and a darker fine-grained centroplasm. The filaments are uniform, but easily broken, so their lengths vary from a few cells to 5 mm long. The bacterial filaments are straight or slightly curved, and there are different degrees of constriction at the obvious transverse septum of the filaments. Ghosts are sometimes seen in old cells. The filaments of Achroonema macromeres can move. Found in the stagnant layer of lake water, but may also be found in the upper layer during the juvenile cycle, and occasionally in ponds or other stagnant waters.
The culture of Achroonema requires specific formulations of growth media for use in cloning, plasmid DNA preparation, and protein expression. Creative Biogene offers a selection of bacterial growth media and custom services for your specific application. If you are interested in our microbial anaerobic and aerobic culture platform, please contact us for more details.