Spiroplasma Cultivation

The cells of Spiroplasma are polymorphic, varying in shape from spherical or slightly oval with a minimum diameter of about 100-250 nanometers to helical mycelia and non-helical branched mycelium. The helical hyphae are about 12 nm in diameter and about 2-4 microns long in log phase, and grow even more after log phase. Only non-spiral cells and round cells have been demonstrated in agar culture. The cells of Spiroplasma have no true cell wall, but are surrounded by a single three-layer membrane about 7-8 nanometers thick. There is an additional outer layer of short protrusions on the surface of the wrap film, which often appears to appear periodically. The helical mycelium is motile, showing two types of motility, a fast-rotating type and a slow-fluctuating type, and no flagella, axoneme or other motility organs have been confirmed. Spiroplasma is Gram-positive. Colonies on solid media were approximately 0.2 mm in diameter and exhibited a typical biphasic "fried egg" appearance. Significant turbidity was produced in the nutrient solution culture. Spiroplasma is chemoheterotrophic. It can produce acid from glucose and mannose. The bacteria do not hydrolyze esculin, arginine or urea. The reduction of tetrazole is variable and phosphatase is positive. The bacteria produced spots on horse serum agar, but did not produce a film, nor did it liquefy coagulated horse serum. Using guinea pig erythrocyte experiment, the colony was made to produce α-type hemolytic zone by covering technology. Furthermore, the bacteria do not synthesize carotenoid pigments. Cholesterol, and possibly other sterols, are required for their culture. Spiroplasma is a facultative anaerobic bacterium that grows best in nitrogen with 5% CO2. The growth temperature range is 20°-37°C, and the growth becomes very rare below 25°C and above 35°C, and the optimum temperature is 32°C.

Spiroplasma Culture Service

Figure 1. Corn stunt Spiroplasma in phloem cells.Figure 1. Corn stunt Spiroplasma in phloem cells. (From en.wikipedia.org)

Creative Biogene offers customizable Spiroplasma strain culture services. This service can help you obtain Spiroplasma cultures for subsequent scientific research. This service allows you to skip the complicated and tedious groping of culture conditions, which helps to speed up research on this strain.

Spiroplasma citri

Spiroplasma citri has the same characteristics as its genus.

Microbial GMP Production

Creative Biogene's fermentation platform has Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and can provide customers with a wide range of high-quality microbial fermentation products such as active pharmaceutical ingredients, enzymes and various fine chemicals. In addition, our microbiology experts have completed the transformation and innovation of traditional processes through continuous breakthroughs in key technologies of microbial fermentation processes, and fully contributed to the smooth delivery of the project.

Production Capacity

Creative Biogene builds a world-class microbial fermentation technology platform, providing a variety of services from strain screening and optimization to fermentation production and product purification. We have many years of rich experience and provide good technical support for microbial GMP production.

Facility Display

As a leader in microbial production, Creative Biogene has comprehensive production process technology and high-volume manufacturing capabilities. Our goal is to help our customers develop streamlined and controlled manufacturing processes and to support customers throughout the entire product development process, from the R&D stage to market launch.

Device Example:

  • Fermentation, centrifugation and filtration upstream process equipment;
  • Fully automatic fermenters ranging in volume from 4,000L to 12,000L with a total capacity of over 100,000 liters;
  • From industrial-scale chromatography systems, membrane systems to larger-scale continuous centrifuges;
  • Recycling and Downstream Equipment;
  • Waste treatment equipment.

Why Choose Us?

The culture of Spiroplasma requires specific formulations of growth media for use in cloning, plasmid DNA preparation, and protein expression. Creative Biogene offers a selection of bacterial growth media and custom services for your specific application. If you are interested in our microbial anaerobic and aerobic culture platform, please contact us for more details.


  1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Book Review Int. J. of Syst. Bact.1985, p. 1319.
For Research Use Only.
Have a question? Get a Free Consultation