The cells of Spiroplasma are polymorphic, varying in shape from spherical or slightly oval with a minimum diameter of about 100-250 nanometers to helical mycelia and non-helical branched mycelium. The helical hyphae are about 12 nm in diameter and about 2-4 microns long in log phase, and grow even more after log phase. Only non-spiral cells and round cells have been demonstrated in agar culture. The cells of Spiroplasma have no true cell wall, but are surrounded by a single three-layer membrane about 7-8 nanometers thick. There is an additional outer layer of short protrusions on the surface of the wrap film, which often appears to appear periodically. The helical mycelium is motile, showing two types of motility, a fast-rotating type and a slow-fluctuating type, and no flagella, axoneme or other motility organs have been confirmed. Spiroplasma is Gram-positive. Colonies on solid media were approximately 0.2 mm in diameter and exhibited a typical biphasic "fried egg" appearance. Significant turbidity was produced in the nutrient solution culture. Spiroplasma is chemoheterotrophic. It can produce acid from glucose and mannose. The bacteria do not hydrolyze esculin, arginine or urea. The reduction of tetrazole is variable and phosphatase is positive. The bacteria produced spots on horse serum agar, but did not produce a film, nor did it liquefy coagulated horse serum. Using guinea pig erythrocyte experiment, the colony was made to produce α-type hemolytic zone by covering technology. Furthermore, the bacteria do not synthesize carotenoid pigments. Cholesterol, and possibly other sterols, are required for their culture. Spiroplasma is a facultative anaerobic bacterium that grows best in nitrogen with 5% CO2. The growth temperature range is 20°-37°C, and the growth becomes very rare below 25°C and above 35°C, and the optimum temperature is 32°C.
Figure 1. Corn stunt Spiroplasma in phloem cells. (From en.wikipedia.org)
Creative Biogene offers customizable Spiroplasma strain culture services. This service can help you obtain Spiroplasma cultures for subsequent scientific research. This service allows you to skip the complicated and tedious groping of culture conditions, which helps to speed up research on this strain.
Spiroplasma citri has the same characteristics as its genus.
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